Lecture Pod 04

Graphs make comparing data easier, but it is essential to choose a type of graph that is appropriate for the data, rather than one that is aesthetically pleasing.Screen Shot 2016-08-07 at 4.38.04 PM


Three commonly used types of graphs are bar charts, line charts and pie charts. Bar charts are easy to understand and are highly recognisable. They are particularly effective with categorical, numerical data as they allow for quick comparisons of information and can reveal highs and lows at a glance. Line charts connect individual numeric data points, usually over a period of time, and pie charts show relative proportions or percentages of information.

Lecture Pod 03

Data visualisation is a useful means of representing large or complex data sets in a way that is easily comprehendible by the audience. By providing the audience with tools to analyse and make comparisons with the data, the amount of time required to understand the content is reduced.

Data visualisation is sometimes referred to as “functional art”, however there’s a fine line between successful data visualisation and superfluous infographics that don’t present the data in a meaningful way, as seen in the below image. It is also important to consider what information is included in the visualisation so as not to overwhelm the audience with unnecessary information.

infographics rant

Lecture Pod 02

There are four main types of data; nominal and ordinal, which are categorical, and interval and ratio, which are numerical.

data types chart

Nominal data consists of names categories that are inherently unordered. This data can be counted to calculate percentages but cannot be used to calculate averages. When there’s only two categories the data is referred to as dichotomous.

Ordinal data refers to the order of the values being measured. No category on an ordinal scale has a truly mathematical value, but they can be used to calculate percentages.

Interval data is numeric data that doesn’t have a meaningful zero point, in that zero doesn’t indicate the absence of the value being measured, e.g. 0:00am isn’t the absence of time and 0°C isn’t the absence of temperature.

Conversely, ratio data is numeric data in which the zero point is meaningful and does indicate an absence of the value, e.g. $0 and 0ml. This is evidenced in the chart below.

data types